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Abuse and dependence to opioids continues to plague the USA.There are approximately 900,000 opioid-dependent persons within the USA.In using the DSM-IV criteria, one should specify whether substance dependence is with physiologic dependence (i.e., there is evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or without physiologic dependence (i.e., no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) Prevalence of drug abuse among offenders in the US CJS remains high at the county, state, and federal level.
The public health implications of SUDs treatment for offenders are numerous.
Incarceration provides an opportunity to initiate or continue treatment for drug and alcohol dependency among inmates, whereupon both the individual and the community can be greatly benefited upon release.
The massive increase in the number of individuals within the United States (USA) criminal justice system (CJS) in the past 30 years can be largely attributed to the “War on Drugs” campaign with drug-related arrests increasing more than fivefold from 1970 to 2005.
Many of the incarcerated individuals have a history of substance use disorders (SUDs), and have reported a use of drugs within the past month prior to arrest.
From 1990 to 1998, the number of women behind bars jumped 71 %.
This escalation of incarcerated women was mostly attributed to a surge in the arrest of female drug users.Substance abuse, as defined by DSM-IV, is demonstration of at least one of the criteria in Table 1 in a span of 12 months.Drug Abuse and Alcohol Dependence Among Inmates, Table 1 DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and substance abuse.While only making up about a quarter of the US population, more than 60 % of the US criminal justice population is black or Latino.Conversely, white inmates have been reported as having a relatively higher prevalence of substance (alcohol and/or drug) abuse or dependence (78 %) compared to blacks (64 %) and Hispanics (59 %) (Karberg and James 2005).This research paper will discuss the strengths and limitations of various evidence-based practices of SUDs treatment administered in incarcerated settings.The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) classifies substance dependency as displaying three out of the seven of the listed criteria in Table 1 in a span of 12 months.Since the 2000s, nonmedical abuse of prescription opioids has led to an upsurge in number of arrests.A nationwide survey from years 2002 to 2004 reported that 30 % of arrestees had used prescription opioids for nonmedical purposes.There are stark differences in METH use by race/ ethnicity.At the federal level, the prevalence of METH abuse among white, Hispanic, and blacks is 29 %, 5 %, and 1 %, respectively (Mumola and Karberg 2006). Among state inmates, 17 % of women used METH in the month prior to arrest, as opposed to 10 % of men (Mumola and Karberg 2006).