The Commission’s 2010–2011 annual report (Chapter 3) provides more detailed information on both oil spill and wildlife response efforts immediately following the Deepwater Horizon explosion.
In August 2011, the Commission released the report, Assessing the Long-term Effects of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Marine Mammals in the Gulf of Mexico: A Statement of Research Needs.
The report outlined the legal mandates for assessing the spill’s overall effects and reviewed the likely impact of the spill on Gulf marine mammals.
It characterized research efforts, highlighted the overall need to improve assessment and monitoring of marine mammals in the Gulf, and outlined priorities for future research and restoration efforts, stressing the importance of long-term monitoring studies of both individual marine mammals and marine mammal populations.
Also, many small fishers have filed for bankruptcy causing high stress.
Research papers on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill would first cover the events leading up to the explosion that destroyed the Deepwater Horizon oil rig and left the rig’s wellhead.
At the same time, the region has come to rely heavily on the industry, and has not made a significant effort to attract other types of commercial enterprises.
In addition, the local tax structures are heavily dependent on oil revenues rather than on a broad base tax system that fairly distributes the burden among citizens and businesses.
Multiple Coast Guard helicopters, planes and cutters responded to rescue the Deepwater Horizon’s 126 person crew (U. Coast Guard) On April 20, 2010, BP’s mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon exploded, burned, and subsequently sank in the Gulf of Mexico 52 miles southeast of Venice, Louisiana. Oil spill response efforts at the national and state level were led by a Unified Command established by the U. Coast Guard, in accordance with the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (National Contingency Plan).
Eleven of the 126 workers on the rig were killed and, over the following 87 days, an estimated 3.19 million barrels (~134 million gallons) of oil spilled into the Gulf (4.0 million barrels minus 810,000 barrels of collected oil). The Unified Command structure was developed to ensure efficient and coordinated containment, dispersal, and removal of oil and hazardous substances while minimizing damage to the human and marine environment.