Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving

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stresses the use of heuristics and often requires little to no use of algorithms.

Heuristics are procedures or strategies that do not guarantee a solution to a problem but provide a more highly probable method for discovering the solution to a problem.

The heuristics used in this form of problem solving are known as strategies.

The term "adversary problem-solving" is normally used to describe situations in which two or more opponents are trying to achieve some goal.

Adversary situations are common in games and sports, but they may also occur in many fields of practical life. Researchers have examined both adversary and non-adversary problem solving.

Chess play is an example of adversarial prob­lem solving, because the game of chess involves an opponent.In divergent thinking, you try to generate a diverse assortment of possible alternative solutions to a problem.Once you have considered a variety of possibilities, however, you must engage in convergent thinking to narrow down the multiple possibilities to converge on a single best answer.Thus, a problem for most people (e.g., a mathematical calcula­tion) may not be so for someone with relevant expertise (e.g., a professional mathematician).The most basic definition is “A problem is any given situation that differs from a desired goal”.Solving a jigsaw puzzle is an example of a static nonroutine problem.Given all pieces to a puzzle and a picture of the goal, learners are challenged to arrange the pieces to complete the picture.One method for studying how to solve well-defined problems is to develop computer simulations.A problem space is the universe of all possible actions that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution of the problem.Problem-solving is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems.The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue.

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