Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.â¢ Can the influence of mentors or other role models be mea- sured, linked to outcomes, and modified?
3 The Elements of Effective Research O ne of the most applied sessions of the workshop featured a series of presentations on planning and conducting research on the effectiveness of interventions.
Describing these meth- ods in a single session is âtaking on the impossible,â acknowledged committee co-chair and session moderator Larry V. Students spend a significant portion of their time in graduate school studying these issues.
Those who want to go into a program may differ in motivation from those who do not actively seek out and choose a program.
Which are the appropriate comparison groupsâthose who are accepted into a program but decline, those who are accepted but cannot participate because of space limitations, or those who are not accepted?
For example, if the student is given a summer experience or a week-long experience to increase interest in the field, does this produce a long- term effect six months later on the career interest expressed by the student?
If it does produce increased interest, does that result in an increase in entry into graduate school or a career?For example, is the duration of the inter- vention that is proposed so short (minutes, a day, or a brief sum- mer session) that it is unlikely to have a measurable effect on the outcome?THE ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE RESEARCH 27 â¢ Are the outcome measures a valid indicator of whether the student will eventually go into a biomedical research career?â¢ Are the comparison groups appropriate and ethical?If you apply an intervention to some and you donât apply it to others, are the latter being deprived of a beneficial treatment?â¢ Among graduate students in the biomedical and behavioral sciences, what were the optimal times of their entry into a research laboratory experience, and what are the characteristics of these stu- dents and their experiences that may have contributed to their pur- suit of graduate study?â¢ How are career decisions influenced by providing informa- tion to students on the skills necessary for success, such as formulat- ing research questions, laboratory management, bioethics, publish- ing, grant writing, and scientific presentations?Nevertheless, the organiz- ers of the workshop hoped to at least introduce the major topics that researchers might consider before undertaking this work. Singh, program director in the Divi- sion of Minority Opportunities in Research (MORE) in the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the National Institutes of Health, gave an overview of the historical context under which the 2003 Request for Applications (RFA) was developed, namely the con- tinued underrepresentation of minorities in biomedical and behav- ioral sciences.He then outlined some of the major questions that the RFA was meant to address, such as the following examples: â¢ Can specific forms of teaching, styles of pedagogy, and men- toring be identified that prompt patterns of student engagement that lead to a biomedical or behavioral research career?Komisaruk also described some of the major questions review- ers asked of these applications: â¢ Is the proposed program research, or is it an assessment or description of a program? For example, is there a testable hypothesis, or is it just observation?â¢ What is the likelihood that the proposed intervention will have a measurable effect?