Her first book of poetry, During World War II, the US Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OIAA) and the Walt Disney Company produced a series of educational films promoting literacy, hygiene, and American (US) values for distribution across the Americas.
Through these films, literacy was to move across borders in service of inter-American cooperation.
The Mayan script remained tied to the society in which it was created and closed to external influences, ultimately dying with the Spanish conquest.
The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE.
If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box.
Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in.The experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society".Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems.The best-known and best-understood Mesoamerican writing is Mayan, for which thousands of texts ranging from the time of Christ to the 16th century survive.These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite.These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and which culminates in the deep understanding of text.Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension.Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites.