Stress was especially evident among high school students.
Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep.
With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.
In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.
The authors of Sallee & Rigler (2008), both high school English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students' extracurricular activities and responsibilities. (2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and responsibilities.
Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) recommended further empirical study relating to this aspect due to the difference between student and parent observations.
Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved.
Vazsonyi & Pickering (2003) studied 809 adolescents in American high schools, and found that, using the Normative Deviance Scale as a model for deviance, the correlation was Bempechat (2004) says that homework develops students' motivation and study skills.
Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) surveyed 4,317 high school students from ten high-performing schools, and found that students reported spending more than 3 hours on homework daily.
72% of the students reported stress from homework, and 82% reported physical symptoms.