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Randomization in this context means that care is taken to ensure that no pattern exists between the assignment of subjects into groups and any characteristics of those subjects.Every subject is as likely as any other to be assigned to the treatment (or control) group.
This is done to improve the validity and reliability of an experiment by eliminating any bias in the assignment process. Regular computer hardware is deterministic and isn't well suited to producing random numbers.
Random numbers produced by a regular computer aren't considered truly random and are referred to as pseudorandom.
About Randomized Field Experiments Randomized field experiments allow researchers to scientifically measure the impact of an intervention on a particular outcome of interest. In a randomized experiment, a study sample is divided into one group that will receive the intervention being studied (the treatment group) and another group that will not receive the intervention (the control group).
For instance, a study sample might consist of all registered voters in a particular city.
This could be implemented by applying random assignment separately for male and female participants.
Random numbers make no guarantee that your control and treatment groups will be balanced in any way.
Random assignment controls for both known and unknown variables that can creep in with other selection processes to confound analyses.
Randomized experimental design is a powerful tool for drawing valid inferences about cause and effect.
Individuals or groups may be randomly assigned to treatment or control groups.
Some research designs stratify subjects by geographic, demographic or other factors prior to random assignment in order to maximize the statistical power of the estimated effect of the treatment (e.g., GOTV intervention).